Our institute released global wave data of the past one thousand years

Recently, our institute released global wave data of the past one thousand years. The data are derived from the second-generation climate system model FIO-ESM v2.0, which includes ocean waves and was developed independently by our institute. It is the world's first set of long-term ocean wave data from a complete climate model. Spatially, it covers all the oceans in the world; temporally, it covers the past, the present and the future century.

According to Song Zhenya, director of the project and a researcher of the Department of Physical Oceanic Studies of our institute, this set of global ocean wave data consists of four ocean wave elements: monthly average and 3-hour high time resolution significant wave height, wave direction, peak spectral period and zero-crossing period, including tests run in the 700 years (301-1000a) before the Industrial Revolution, historical simulation tests run in the 165 years from 1850 to 2014, ssp126, ssp245 and ssp585 future scenario tests run in the 86 years from 2015 to 2100, and 1% carbon dioxide increase and 4 times carbon dioxide surge tests in 150 years. The average monthly data can be downloaded at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4819503.v1, and the 3-hour high time resolution data can be downloaded at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4839729.v1. And, results of the test of the 3-hour high time resolution data of the preindustrial 700 years (301-1000a) have not been uploaded to the public network for sharing due to their sheer magnitude. To get these data, please contact the relevant staff at our institute.

FIO-ESM is a climate model characterized by sea wave coupling. Ocean waves are the most common physical phenomenon in oceans; they are also the most energetic movement in oceans around the globe. Previous findings show that while ocean waves have a big impact on navigation safety, disaster reduction and prevention, and beach erosion, their role in large-scale ocean and climate systems is negligible and is yet to be emphasized. After long-term unremitting efforts, the researchers at our institute revealed ocean waves' central action on the upper oceanic mixed layer and the climate system, advanced the theory of wave-induced mixing and captured the essence of wave-induced turbulence, and established the FIO-COM—the world's first coupling model for ocean waves, tidal currents, and ring currents. This reduced the simulation deviation of subsurface ocean temperature by about 90% and is universally applicable to oceanic numerical models. Our institute established FIO-ESM v1.0, the world's first climate model including ocean waves, on this basis. In 2003, we participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5), and subsequently incorporated the influence of ocean wave droplets and ocean waves on air-sea fluxes into the climate model and built FIO-ESM v2.0. We are currently participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP 6).

Because the wave model is for the first time included in the climate model, we can obtain wave parameters of the period before the Industrial Revolution, those generated in historical simulations, those in diverse future climate change scenarios and those yielded in carbon dioxide susceptibility tests. The model can be used to study long-term global wave data of the past, the present and the future, and make up for the lack of data in current ocean wave research and ocean wave application. Data of the one thousand years before the Industrial Revolution, particularly, is expected to deepen the scientific understanding of ocean waves as physical processes; historical experimental data can further clarify wave changes in the past 100 years; experimental data in future climate change scenarios can play an important role in coastal engineering and research on coastal erosion;  data yielded in carbon dioxide susceptibility tests can help us thoroughly understood ocean waves' response to climate change. To sum up, these data will eventually contribute enormously to scientific research on climate change, disaster prevention and mitigation, tackling the climate crisis and building an ecological civilization.